1. 	(a) 	Using 2's complement notation perform the following arithmetic operations using 8-bit register.

		(i) 25 + (-12)
		(ii) 13 - 8
		(iii) -19-17
		(iv) -8 + 18
		(v) 12 - (-9)


Also write overflow/underflow if any. 


	(b) 	Write a program for evaluating A*B/C+D/E-F using 2 address and 3 address machine instructions . Make assumptions, if required. 

	(c) 	How can a stack be used for implementing a subroutine call? Can this scheme be used to pass parameter also ? Justify your answer. [4 marks] 

	(d) 

Write program in 8086 assembly language to count the numbers of vowels in a given string. Assume that 20 byte long string is stored in data segment.[5 Marks] 

	(e) 	Draw an arithmetic pipeline for floating point subtraction.[5 Marks] 

	(f) 	What is RAID? What are RAID levels? Explain any two levels giving data distribution and advantages/disadvanteges of that level.[5marks] 



2. 	(a) 	What is the need of having many addressing modes in a machine? Explain any four most important addressing modes for your machine and justify your selection. [5 Marks] 

	(b) 	Design a combinational circuit that generates an odd parity for four digit number input.[5 Marks] 

	(c) 	Give block diagram of DMA controller.How does CPU initialize the DMA transfer?[5 Marks] 



3. 	(a) 

Write a program in 8086 assembly language to display a string stored in the data segment on the computer monitor,only if the first character of the string is an upper case alphabet.[5 Marks] 


	(b) 	Compare the various advantages and disadvantages of isolated mapped I/O scheme and memory mapped I/O scheme.[5 Marks] 

	(c) 	"Counter is a register". Justify your answer. Draw and explain the working priciples of a 4-bit asynchronus ripple counter.[5 Marks] 


4. 	(a) 	Show that {NAND} is a functionally complete set of gates.Use it to construct the OR,AND and NOT gates.[5 Marks] 

	(b) 	Draw the circuit for 4-bit ROM having four words and explain the design. 

	(c) 	What is an interrupt? How is the interrupt 21 h used in 8086 microprocessor? 


5. 	(a) 	Design a floating Point Number format for the following requirements:

		Base:2

		Mantissa: Normalized, should hold 4 significant decimal digits.
		Exponent: Biased exponent in the range of +25 single precision.
		Make suitable assumptions,if any. 

	(b) 	What is Wilkes control? Is it different from hardwired control? Justify. Also explain how a microprogram can be executed? 

	(c) 	Explain the use of 'AAA' and 'DAA' instructions with the help of an example of each, for 8086 micro-processor:


6. 		Describe the following terms in context of computer organisation of 8086 micro-processor:

		(a) Mask and insertion operation. 
		(b) Linker and Loader.
		(c) Associative Memory.
		(d) Co-processor and Peripheral processor.
		(e) Multiplexer and Decoder. 



7. 	(a) 	Perform the following arithmetic operations using 8-bit registers. Use binayr signed 1's complement notation. Indicate overflow/underflow, if any: [6 Marks]

		(i) -84 + 42
		(ii) 83 - {-45)
		(iii) 84 - 38
		(iv) -52 -48


	(b) 	Simplify the following boolean functions using Sum-of-Product form, using K-Maps. [6 marks] 

		F(A, B, C, D) = ?(0, 2, 3, 7, 8, 13, 14) 

	(c) 	Write a program for evaluating the following expression using zero address instruction format A + B * C / D - E. [6 marks] 

	(d) 	What is a the need of an Input-Output Processor ? Suggest a method by which an Input/Output Processor can be connected to slow devices. [4 Marks] 

	(e) 	What is an interrupt ? Why do they occur ? What is IVT in 8086 micro-processor ? How is it useful in Interrupt processing ? Explain this with the help of an example for 8086 micro-processor. [8 Marks] 



8. 	(a) 	Draw the logic circuit for one stage of full adder. Draw the block diagram for adding two four-bit number. [5 Marks] 

	(b) 	The 8-bit registers, initially have the following values : 

		AR = 10110110 BR = 10010101
		CR = 11100101 DR = 00111010

	Determine the values in each register after the executing of the following sequence of micro-operations.

		(i) AR ? AR ^ BR
		(ii) BR ? CR xor DR
		(iii) DR ? DR - CR 
		(iv) CR ? AR + DR 



	(c) 	What is the purpose of Single Error Correcting (SEC) code ? What do you mean by error correction ? Explain with the help of an example. [5 marks] 


9. 	(a) 	What is bus arbitration ? Explain the Daisy Chaining and Polling schemes with the help of diagram for each. [6 marks] 

	(b) 	Describe the need of multiplexer in a system. How is it different from decoder ? Draw logic diagrams of 2*1 multiplexer and 2*4 decoder. [5 marks] 

	(c) 	Explain any four differences between horizonal and vertical micro-instructio formats [4 marks] 


10. 	(a) 	What is the need of many addressing modes in a machine ? Give four addressing modes that must be present in a machine. Justify your selection. [4 marks] 

	(b) 	How does CALL instruction improve the 8086 assembly programming ? Explain two differences between FAR and NEAR procedure calls in 8086 micro-processor with the help of a suitable example for eache case. [6 marks] 

	(c) 	Explain four important differences between associative mapping & set associative mapping in cache. [4 marks] 



11. 	(a) 	What is RAID ? What are RAID levels ? Explain any two giving data distribution and advantages/disadvantages of that level. [5 marks] 

	(b) 	What is a synchronous counter ? How is it different from ripple counter ? Where are ripple counters used ? Draw the logic diagram of 3-bit ripple counter. [5 marks] 	

	(c) 	Write a program in 8086 assembly language to transfer an array of 10 elements stored in memory to another location in the memory. Make suitable assumptions, if any. [5 marks] 



12. 	(a) 	Convert the following: [10 Marks]

		(i) Decimal number 48.135 to binary.
		(ii) Binary number 1101111.0011 to octal.
		(iii)Binary number 11011101.1101 to hexadecimal.
		(iv)Hexadecimal number ACF02 to decimal.


	(b) 	Explain the following addressing schemes with one example for each:
		
		(i) Immediate addressing
		(ii) Base addressing
		(iii) Register indirect addressing
		(iv) Stack addressing


	(c) 	Explain the following data transfer instructions of 8086 with the help of an example for each:
		(i) XLAT
		(ii) POP
		(iii)LDS
		(iv) MOV			[6 marks] 


	(d) 	Map the function having four variables in a Karnaugh's map and simplify:

		F(W,X,Y,Z)=(1,2,3,9,11,15). [4 Marks] 


13. 	(a) 	Design and explain a 3*8 decoder. [8 Marks] 

	(b) 	List and explain the purpose of programmer visible registers. 



14. 	(a) 	With the help of a block diagram,explain the bus interface unit and the Execution unit of 8086 CPU. [8 marks] 

	(b) 	Write an assembly language program which divides a 32-bit number by a 8-bit number. [7 marks] 


15. 	(a) 	What is an intterupt? Explain the step-by-step procedure to process an interrupt. [7 marks] 

	(b) 	Draw the block diagram and explain the functioning of Wilkes Control Unit. [8 marks] 


16. 		Explain the following :

		
		(i) Multiplexer
		(ii) Master-slave flip-flop using j-k flip flop
		(iii) Direct memory access
		(iv) Magnetic Bubble Memory
		(v) Half adder 



17. 	(a) 	Design A 4-bit Arithmetic circuit using full adders and multiplexers which is capable of performing the following actions: 

		•	Transferring an input data as it is to the Full adder
		•	Transferring 1s complement of the input data to the Full adder
		•	Transferring 0 as input the the Full adder
		•	Transferring a 1 as input the Full adder			[9 marks] 


	(b) 	Convert the octal number 577.46 to the following: 
		
		•	BCD number
		•	Decimal number
		•	Binary number
		•	Hexadecimal number		[6 marks] 


	(c) 	Define the IEEE 754 floating point number standard giving the single and double precision floating point number bits layout and bias of exponent. Also, show an example each of addition and subtraction of two floating point numbers. [5 marks] 

	(d) 	What are memory mapped I/O and I/O mapped I/O ? Explain with appropriate figures. [10 marks] 


18. 	(a) 	Explain the structure and functional requirements of a control unit. [10 marks] 

	(b) 	Explain the dataprocessing unit of a CPU. [5 marks] 


19. 	(a) 	Compare Intel 8086 with Motorola 68000 considering the various registers and interrupts used. [5 marks] 

	(b) 	Write an 8086 assembly language proram to compute the factorial of a number. [10 marks] 



20. 	(a) 	Map the function having four variables in a karnaugh's map. The function is F(A,B,C,D)= ?(2,6,10,14). [9 marks] 

	(b) 	Explain the basic characteristics of RAID disks. [6 marks] 


21. 	(a) 	What are the differences between base and relative addressing schemes ? Give an example for each. [5 marks] 

	(b) 	Write an 8086 assembly language program for adding an array of binary numbers. [10 marks] 



22. 	(a) 	Perform the following Arithmetic operations using 8-bit registers. Use 2's complement method. Indicate overflow or underflow if it occurs [5 Marks]

		(i) 28 + (-28)
		(ii) 26 - (-26)
		(iii) -38-(90)
		(iv) 25 - 90


	(b) 	Construct the Karnaugh's map for the following function in terms of variables A,B,C,D. Find the optimal function using this map.[5 Marks]


		F(A,B,C,D)=?(2,6,10,14)

Draw the resulting logic diagram of the function. 


	(c) 	Describe the need of multiplexer in a system. How is a multiplexer different from a decoder? Draw a logic diagram of a 2×1 multiplexer and 2×4 decoder.[5 Marks] 

	(d) 	Write program in 8086 to find the largest number in a list of integers stored in the memory.The program should output the number and its location in the memory.[5 Marks] 

	(e) 	How does the microprogrammd control unit of a computer function? Explain with the help of a block diagram.[5 Marks]

	(f) 	What is the need of having master-slave flip-flop? Explain the working of a master-slave flip-flop with the help of logic diagram. [5 Marks] 


2. 	(a) 	What is a bit slice? Where can it be used? Compare and contrast the features of Random Access to Direct Access. Give an example of Direct Access.[5 Marks] 

	(b) 	Write a program in 8086 assembly language that compare two strings. The program will output-1 if string 1 < string 2;0 if both the strings are equal; +1 if string 1> string 2.[5 Marks] 

	(c) 	What is the head of a disk? List the various head mechanisms.Compare and Contrast these mechanisms.[5 Marks] 



3. 	(a) 	What are the functional requirements of an input ouput module? Explain briefly. Explain the interrupt driven Input/Output.[5 Marks] 

	(b) 	What are the advantages and disadvantages of evaluation-stack architecture? Describe the architecture with an example.[5 Marks] 

	(c) 	What is the need of having many addressing modes in a machine? As a machine designer,select five most important addressing modes for your machine.Give reasons of your selection.[5 Marks] 


4. 	(a) 	How is the memory read and write operation carried out using system bus? Write the necessary micro-operations for the above. 

	(b) 	Design a floating point number representation for the following:[5 Marks]

		Base : 2

			Mantissa : Normalised
			Precision : Single precision
			Range of Exponent : 1×10+ 20
				-
			Range of mantissa : Equivalent to 5 decimal digits represented correctly.
			Exponent : Biased exponent
			Assume that the word size of the above machine is 16 bits. 

	(c) 	What is firmware? How is it different from software? Describe the Wilkes control unit.[5 Marks] 


5. 	(a) 	Compare and contrast unencoded and highly encoded microinstructions.[5 Marks] 

	(b) 	Write a 8086 assembly program to replace an uppercase letter by a lowercase letter.Make suitable assumptions, if any.[5 Marks] 

	(c) 	What is the purpose of the queue in the bus interface unit of 8086 microprocessor? 



6. 	Describe the following terms in context of computer organisation of 8086 micro-processor:

	(a) Linker 
	(b) Associative Memories
	(c) Co-processor and Peripheral processors 
	(d) Interrupt Vector Table(IVT)
	(e) Mask and Insert Operation
	(f) Mapping of Cache blocks 

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